The Development of Positive Thinking in Children


  • Asst. Prof. Dr. Ghada Ali Hadi Jaafar University of Baghdad - College of Education Ibn – Rushd for Human Sciences - Iraq



Positive thinking‎, self- talking, positive imagination


The current research aimed to identify positive thinking and its skills (self- talk, imagination, and positive expectation) in children according to the variables of age                      (8, 9, 10, 11) years and gender (males, females). The significance of the differences in it is known according to the variables of age and gender. The research has adopted the Daniel (2018) scale of positive thinking skills. After the researcher verified its standard characteristics, the scale was applied to a sample of (200) boys and girls, who were chosen by stratified random method, with (50) boys and girls in each age group, equally between males and females. The results of the research showed that the positive thinking and its three skills (self- talk, imagination, and positive expectation) among children at the age of (8) years was weak, and at the age of (9) years the children had positive thinking with its three skills at an average level. As for the ages of (10 and 11) years the possessed positive thinking with his three skills at a high level. The results also showed that positive thinking and its skills develop with age, and take a continuous path. The gender variable did not appear to have any effect on this thinking.


Download data is not yet available.


Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990): Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New ‎York, Harper ‎‏ ‏& Row.‎

Lazarus. S.R. (1976). Patterns of adjustment, 03rd Edition, Mc, Graw – Hill, New ‎York. ‎

Lightsey, Owen Richard.(1994). “Thinking Positive” as a Stress Buffer: The Role ‎of Positive Automatic cognitions in Depression and Happiness. Journal of ‎Counseling Psychology, v 41 n3.‎

Philipsen, L. (2006). Expecting the best relation between peer optimism and ‎social competence, journal of positive psychology, Vol. 1 Issue 3, Jul. p: 130-‎‎141.‎

Schweingruber, David. (2016). Success through a positive mental attitude? ‎Therole of positive thinking in door-to- door sales, Sociological Quarterly, ‎Vol 47 (1) Feb. p: 41-68.‎

Seligman, M. (2002). Positive Psychology, Positive Prevention and positive ‎therapy. In C.R. Snyder & S.J. Lopez (Eds). The Handbook of Positive ‎Psychology (p:3-9). New York: Oxford University Press.‎

Seligman, M.E.P. & Csikszentmihalyi, M (2000): Positive Psychology: A ‎introduction, American Psychologist, 55, 5-14.‎

Seligman., M., Peterson, C., & Park (2004). Strengths of character and well ‎being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 603- 619‎

‎ ‎




How to Cite

The Development of Positive Thinking in Children. (2022). ALUSTATH JOURNAL FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 61(2), 1-28.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 151

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.