The Role of Baṣra and the Personality Indexes of Naẓẓām Baṣary ‎in the Formation of the Theory of Ṣarfa


  • Mahdi Pichan Department of Quran and Hadith Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, University of Tarbiat modares, Tehran, Iran
  • Asst. Prof. Amir Ahmadnezhad University of Isfahan, Iran,‎



Baṣra‎, Muʿtazila‎, Brahma's Hinduism‎, Ṣarfa, Naẓẓām, miracle of Qur'an, crestedness of Qur'an, al-fida, Inquisition, paradigm


According to Qur'anic scholars Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm ibn Saiyyār Baṣary, commonly known as Naẓẓām, the great Muʿtazila theologian is the first person to formulate and develop the theory of Ṣarfa about the miraculous aspects of Qur'an. Contemplation and focus on the biography of Naẓẓām Baṣary, as well as the historical, social and geographical conditions of Baṣra, his hometown, opens a new chapter in understanding the active factors in the formation of the theory of Ṣarfa. The results of the paper confirm the  Communication of Naẓẓām with Hindu Brahma and the widespread presence of Hindus in Baṣra in the ninth century further reinforces the possibility that Ṣarfa is retrieved from Indian Braham's thought, found in the book al-fida. His encounter with philosophers and the emergence of philosophical thought in his theological perspective, on the one hand, and the dominance of philosophical thought in Baṣra, suggests that the theory of Ṣarfa is influenced by philosophical thought. Moreover, the coincidence of Naẓẓām's life as a proponent of Qur'an's creation with a significant amount of challenges on the idea of the Greatness of Qur'an, reinforced the effectiveness of the theory on Ṣarfa on the idea of the Greatness of Qur'an.


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How to Cite

The Role of Baṣra and the Personality Indexes of Naẓẓām Baṣary ‎in the Formation of the Theory of Ṣarfa. (2022). ALUSTATH JOURNAL FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 61(2), 475-487.

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